Wednesday, 8 February 2023

Neodymium glass life span

Neodymium glass is a type of optical glass that contains neodymium ions. This special type of glass is used for several applications, including:

  1. Lasers: Neodymium glass is used as a gain medium in high-powered laser systems due to its strong absorption and emission of light in the infrared region.

  2. Light filtering: Neodymium glass is used in filters for controlling the spectral distribution of light in certain applications, such as color correction in photography.

  3. Fiber optics: Neodymium glass is used in fiber optic amplifiers to increase signal strength in optical communication systems.

  4. Illumination: Neodymium glass is used in the production of high-intensity lamps and floodlights due to its ability to absorb ultraviolet light and produce a bright white light.

  5. Welding: Neodymium glass is used in welding applications as a protective lens to filter out harmful infrared and ultraviolet light.

Neodymium glass does not naturally glow. It is a type of optical glass that absorbs light in the ultraviolet and infrared regions and is used to filter, amplify, or shape light in various applications.

However, when exposed to light of a certain wavelength, neodymium glass can appear to glow due to the strong absorption and emission of light in the infrared region. This property makes neodymium glass a useful component in high-powered laser systems and fiber optic amplifiers. Neodymium glass is made by adding neodymium ions to the glass composition during the manufacturing process. The process involves melting the glass components (silica, alumina, and other ingredients) at high temperatures and then adding a small amount of neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) to the melt. The mixture is then cooled and solidified to form a uniform, homogeneous glass.

The exact process for making neodymium glass may vary depending on the type of glass and the desired properties, but the addition of neodymium ions is a key step in the production of neodymium glass. The neodymium ions give the glass its unique optical properties, such as strong absorption and emission of light in the infrared region, which make it useful in various applications, including lasers, fiber optics, and illumination. Neodymium itself is not harmful to humans. It is a rare earth metal that is commonly used in various industries and products, such as electronics, magnets, and glasses.

However, neodymium compounds can be toxic if ingested or inhaled in large amounts. For example, neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) can cause respiratory irritation and other health problems if inhaled in high concentrations. Neodymium compounds can also be skin and eye irritants.

It is important to handle neodymium products and materials with care and to follow proper safety procedures to avoid exposure to harmful levels of neodymium compounds. If you suspect exposure to high levels of neodymium, seek medical attention immediately. The lifespan of neodymium products depends on several factors, including the type of product, the manufacturing quality, and the usage conditions.

In general, neodymium magnets have a long lifespan and can last for many years with proper usage and handling. They are known for their high resistance to demagnetization and corrosion, which helps to ensure their longevity.

However, the lifespan of neodymium products can be reduced if they are subjected to high temperatures, strong impacts, or corrosive environments. The performance of neodymium magnets can also decrease over time due to the gradual loss of magnetization.

Overall, the lifespan of neodymium products can range from several years to several decades, depending on the specific product and usage conditions. To extend the lifespan of neodymium products, it is important to handle and store them properly, and to avoid exposing them to harsh conditions that can cause damage.

Does neodymium magnet break easily?

Neodymium magnets, which are made of an alloy of neodymium, iron, and boron, can be brittle and prone to cracking or breaking under certain conditions. They are relatively fragile compared to other types of magnets and can be easily damaged by strong impacts or bending forces.

In addition, neodymium magnets can be sensitive to temperature changes and can lose their magnetization if exposed to high temperatures. This makes it important to handle neodymium magnets with care and to avoid exposing them to extreme temperatures or strong impacts.

However, neodymium magnets are widely used in many applications due to their high magnetic strength and are often coated with a protective layer to help prevent damage and extend their lifespan. With proper handling and usage, neodymium magnets can be durable and long-lasting.

Monday, 6 February 2023

Business expenses list excel

Here is a list of common business expenses that can be tracked in an Excel spreadsheet:

  1. Rent
  2. Employee salaries
  3. Marketing and advertising
  4. Insurance
  5. Utilities (electricity, water, internet, etc.)
  6. Inventory
  7. Equipment (computers, machinery, etc.)
  8. Supplies (stationery, office equipment, etc.)
  9. Taxes and permit fees
  10. Travel (flights, lodging, meals, etc.)
  11. Legal and professional fees
  12. Depreciation of assets
  13. Bank fees and charges
  14. Maintenance and repairs
  15. Raw materials

For each expense, you could create columns for the amount, date, vendor or supplier, and any relevant notes. By tracking these expenses in Excel, you can get a better understanding of your company's financial situation and make informed decisions about how to manage your finances.

Sunday, 2 October 2022

The Habitats of Birds of Paradise

 There are forty-two known species of birds of paradise, of which thirty-eight are found in New Guinea, two in Australia, and two in Maluku in eastern Indonesia. The climate in New Guinea is generally wet, though it is possible to distinguish between a ‘dry season’ from May to November, and a ‘wet season’ from October to April. Most of the native birds, including the birds of paradise, reach a peak of plumage display during the dry season and the beginning of the wet season, which marks the height of the nesting period. G.E. Rumphius, the Belgian naturalist in the employ of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the seventeenth century, was the first to document six species of the bird. Though the original manuscript is lost, his observations are repeated in François Valentijn’s monumental study, Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indiën, published in 1724.

Among the six species mentioned are the Lesser Bird of Paradise, which were the birds brought back to Europe by Magellan’s crew, and the Greater Bird of Paradise (which Linnaeus named the ‘Feetless Bird of Paradise’, to mock prevalent European views). The former species is found near the coast in the Bird’s Head Peninsula of West Papua Province and in the Jayapura region of Papua Province in Indonesia, while the latter is located in southwest Papua New Guinea as well as in the Trans Fly region which straddles both countries. While in Aru, Alfred Russel Wallace witnessed the mating dance of the Greater Bird of Paradise, although its habitat is in New Guinea.

Some of these birds fly to the nearby Aru Islands during the mating season, though such a journey can be treacherous because of the peculiar nature of their feathers. He noted that in September and October the silky feathers of the birds were in full perfection. It was then that they began their special mating dance on very large trees with extensive canopies but scattered foliage, allowing a space for the birds to strut in the sun to display their splendid feathers. In one tree he saw assembled between a dozen and twenty male birds in full plumage, raising their wings and stretching their necks all the while maintaining a continuous vibration which contributed to the brilliance of the display of the plumes. Flying from branch to branch, the birds presented a spectacle of colourful feathers in constant motion in all manner of poses.

Wallace writes:

The bird itself is nearly as large as a crow, and is of a rich coffee brown colour. The head and neck is of a purest yellow above, and rich metallic green beneath. The long plumy tufts of golden orange feathers spring from the sides beneath each wing, and when the bird is in repose are partly concealed by them. At the time of its excitement, however, the wings are raised vertically over the back, the head is bent down and stretched out, and the long plumes are raised up and expanded till they form two magnificent golden fans, striped with deep red at the base, and fading off into the pale brown tint of the finely divided and softly waving points.

The whole bird is then overshadowed by them, the crouching body, yellow head, and emerald green throat forming but the foundation and setting to the golden glory which waves above. When seen in this attitude, the Bird of Paradise really deserves its name, and must be ranked as one of the most beautiful and most wonderful of living things. Among the Papuans of New Guinea and neighbouring islands, the species that is most prized is the Raggiana Bird of Paradise (Paradisaea raggiana; cenderawasih in Indonesian), which appears in the national crest and the flag of Papua New Guinea.

They are found in southern and northeastern Papua New Guinea, and their feathers adorn the headdress of many Papuan dancers during special festivals. In Indonesia’s Papua Province, the cenderawasih’s popularity is reflected in the fact that its name has been given to a bay, a university, and to streets.

Sunday, 21 August 2022

Song repertoires of Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) populations in a neighboring sapling, pole, and saw-timber stands in eastern Texas were tape-recorded during the 1979 breeding season. Cardinals in each area used different syllable types and sang songs of varying duration and complexity. Cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis identified three distinct dialects, one for each of the three study areas. Cardinals in the sapling stand used a wider range of frequencies than did those in the saw-timber stand. 

Cardinals in the pole stand used a range of frequencies intermediate in size to that of either the sapling or saw-timber stands. For all three populations, the frequency with the greatest amplitude was about 2 100 Hz, a low frequency that carries better than high frequencies over long distances. 

In the stand that lacked a closed canopy, cardinals typically used syllables with considerable frequency modulation; however, in the two older stands cardinals seldom used extensive frequency modulation in their songs. 

Differential singing behavior of this nature probably enhances long-distance communication by minimizing excessive reverberation from canopy foliage. We suggest that some of the differences in syllable structure noted between the three cardinal dialects may be the result of selective pressures exerted by the acoustics of the environment.

Monday, 15 August 2022

Quebrada de Humahuaca - Remains of ancient cultures in a colorful Andes valley

 RUTA 9 SHOOTS NORTH of San Salvador de Jujuy in Argentina’s lonesome, northwestern reaches. This region evokes a beautiful last-frontier quality with its long, cactus-dotted valley carved over millennia by the Río Grande. It’s the coloring that stands out first, craggy rock walls banded in vibrant reds, yellows, oranges, pinks, and blues, as if a crazy artist went to work with a broad brush and a madcap vision.

The Cerro de los Siete Colores (Hill of Seven Colors), just outside Purmamarca, and Serranía de Hornocal, near Humahuaca, with vivid, wave-shaped rock formations, are two striking examples of this phenomenon. But arid natural beauty is not the foremost reason for this region’s fame. Remote as it seems, the valley was used as one of the world’s oldest trade routes, and people have lived and traveled and exchanged ideas in it for 10,000 years.

Stone-walled terraces, built by early agricultural societies and thought to be 1,500 years old, are still in use today at Coctaca. Later generations of indigenous people also learned the art of ceramics, and cultivated crops like corn, potatoes, and quinoa. In the 15th century, the Inca folded the region into their empire, and then the treasure-seeking Spaniards invaded it in the 16th century.

There are still traces of both occupiers: Among the Inca vestiges are three mummified children found in a perfect state of preservation 22,110 feet (6,739 m) up Llullaillaco Mountain, where they had been sacrificed in a religious ritual. They’re part of a poignant display at Salta’s excellent High Mountain Archaeological Museum. The Spanish left behind distinctive colonial architecture like neat adobe houses and squat Hispanic churches.

The golden altar at Capilla de San Francisco de Paula in Uquía is particularly stunning. Despite foreign invasions, the original cultures of this region were never obliterated. Just poke into the string of villages lining the Río Grande canyon—Purmamarca, Maimará, Tilcara, and Humahuaca—and you’ll discover traces of that indigenous heritage everywhere, in age-old festivals, spirituality, arts, healing practices, and language.

Even the cuisine reflects long-ago traditions. The best time to experience the legacy of the native people of Quebrada de Humahuaca is August 1, when Pachamama (Mother Earth) is celebrated for her year-round beneficence with gifts left on roadside altars. The best potatoes, corn, and meat are cooked in a stew that is buried in the ground, along with cigarettes, coca leaves, and alcohol. This is a gesture of feeding the earth, upon which the people rely for sustenance.


Does a star have less responsibility to the team than other players? Is it just their role to be great and win games? Or does a star have more responsibility than others? What does Michael Jordan think? “In our society sometimes it’s hard to come to grips with filling a role instead of trying to be a superstar,” says Jordan. A superstar’s talent can win games, but it’s teamwork that wins championships. Coach John Wooden claims he was tactically and strategically average. So how did he win ten national championships? 

One of the main reasons, he tells us, is because he was good at getting players to fill roles as part of a team. “I believe, for example, I could have made Kareem [Abdul-Jabbar] the greatest scorer in college history. I could have done that by developing the team around their ability of his. Would we have won three national championships while he was at UCLA? Never.” In the fixed mindset, athletes want to validate their talent. 

This means acting like a superstar, not “just” a team member. But, as with Pedro Martinez, this mindset works against the important victories they want to achieve. A telling tale is the story of Patrick Ewing, who could have been a basketball champion. The year Ewing was a draft pick—by far the most exciting pick of the year—the Knicks won the lottery and to their joy got to select Ewing for their team. 

They now had “twin towers,” the seven-foot Ewing, and the seven-foot Bill Cartwright, their high-scoring center. They had a chance to do it all. They just needed Ewing to be the power forward. He wasn’t happy with that. The Center is the star position. And maybe he wasn’t sure he could hit the outside shots that power forward has to hit. 

What if he had really given his all to learn that position? (Alex Rodriguez, the best shortstop in baseball, agreed to play third base when he joined the Yankees. He had to retrain himself and, for a while, he wasn’t all he had been.) Instead, Cartwright was sent to the Bulls, and Ewing’s Knicks never won a championship. 

Then there is the tale of the football player Keyshawn Johnson, another immensely talented player who was devoted to validating his own greatness. When asked before a game how he compared to a star player on the opposing team, he replied, “You’re trying to compare a flashlight to a star. Flashlights only last so long. 

A star is in the sky forever.” Was he a team player? “I am a team player, but I’m an individual first. I have to be the No. 1 guy with the football. Not No. 2 or No. 3. If I’m not the No. 1 guy, I’m no good to you. I can’t really help you.” What does that mean? For his definition of a team player, Johnson was traded by the Jets, and, after that, deactivated by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. I’ve noticed an interesting thing. 

When some star players are interviewed after a game, they say we. They are part of the team and they think of themselves that way. When others are interviewed, they say I, and they refer to their teammates as something apart from themselves—as people who are privileged to participate in their greatness.

Thursday, 4 August 2022

The life History of Ornithoptera Alexandrae Rothschild

During the years 1967 and 1968 some data were obtained on the life history and behavior of Ornithoptera alexandrae Rothschild, the largest known species of Rhopalocera. The geographic distribution of O. alexandrae is limited to a relatively small area in southeastern Papua New Guinea. However, within its range, there are many areas where the butterfly does not occur although the host plant grows prolifically.

The main habitat is a low and relatively flat region, but it has also been observed at altitudes up to 900 mete: O. alexandrae is monophagous. Its hostplant is Aristolochia schlechteri, a vine having rather large, thick leaves and stringy stems covered with a layer of strongly ribbed cork.

The flower is shaped like a starfish with three long arms and is dark purple-brown with a yellow heart. ‘The fruit is green, shaped like a small cucumber 20 to 30 cm long, strongly ribbed longitudinally and has a rough skin. It matures slowly and when fully rotten the seeds fall to the ground and are carried away by rainwater generally over short distances, resulting in a number of plants growing in a restricted area.

In primary forest the vine reaches the top of tall trees of over 40 meters high. When larvae were transferred to Aristolochia tagala, a plant more generally distributed, it was accepted readily and the larvae developed normally, although at a much faster rate than larvae feeding on their natural host. Data recorded show a rapid growth as v with larvae of Papilioaegeus when reared on parsley or carrot leaves instead of their natural food plants. 

When three larvae, obtained from eggs collected in the field, were reared on A. tagala they went through six instars instead of the usual five. It is not known whether this is hereditary or environ- as the case mental, The female butterfly does not oviposit on A. tagala. Oviposition. 

Generally a single egg is laid on the under surface of an old leaf of the hostplant. In secondary forest where this plant is not ver tall, the egg is laid from a few centimeters above the ground to about one meter above it. On several occasions a female was observed laying on other objects than the food plant such as a grass stem growing at a dis- tance of a few centimeters from one of the main stems of the Aristolochia vine. In primary forest, however, oviposition may take place at a con- siderable height above the ground. 

Egg. Large, light yellow, flattened at the base, Diameter 34% mm. Covered with a thick layer of a bright-orange sticky substance, which fixes it firmly to the surface ‘on which it is laid. Incubation period varying from 11 to 13 days. First-instar Larva. Ground colour dark wine red. All segments with long tubercles of same colour as body; tubercles fleshy for about one-fourth their length, remain- ing part stiff and black with numerous black spines. 

Two dorsal tubercles on the fourth abdominal segment light red as is dorsal saddle mark joining them on the same segment. Saddle mark divided mid-dorsally by a narrow black line. Head, prothoracie shield and legs black; prolegs dark, fleshy. Newly hatched larva seven to eight mm long. Osmaterium orange yellow. Second-instar Larva, Ground colour reddish black. Tubercles proportionately longer, all fleshy and without spines, latero-dorsal ones the longest. 

Dorsal and latero-dorsal tubercles on thoracic segments two and three, and dorsal ones on ab- dominal segments one, seven, eight and nine red; two dorsal tubercles on ab- dominal segment four creamy-white with pink tips; remaining tubercles of ground colour, First thoracic segment with four tubercles, following three segments with eight; abdominal segments two to eight with six; ninth abdominal with four and the last segment with two tubercles, Third- to final-instar Larvae, Ground colour unchanged, ‘Tubercles without spines, of nearly equal length except for the ventro-lateral ones which are very short, In ultimate instar, body tubercles proportionately smaller than in early instars, All bright red except two dorsal ones on fourth abdominal segment which remain creamy white with pink tips. 

Conspicuous saddle mark extending and narrowing down to spiracles. Some larvae with an additional creamy spot on third abdominal segment. Measurements of a large, mature larva: length 118 mm, greatest width 30 mm; headcapsule length, 12 mm, width 11 mm; longest tubercle, 13 mm. Some larvae have six instars instead of the usual five, and these producing the largest butterflies. 

Adult. The size of the butterfly varies considerably. The average length of the forewing in the male is 97 to 100 mm, in the female 118 to 126 mm. Many specimens are smaller, few are larger. One previously unrecorded feature is that some males have translucent, yellow discal spots on the hind wings, homologous to those of priamus and victoriae. 

In the higher altitudes of its range the total figure may reach 180 days depending on the locality. It was observed that larvae feeding on Aristolochia schlechteri spend much time in search of suitable leaves and stems. However, those feed- ing on the succulent and soft parts of Aristolochia tagala rarely move around and appear to have a longer average daily feeding time. Feeding habits. Shortly after hatching the larva devours its eggshell, which provides sufficient food for the next 24 hours.

It then commences. Later instars feed on older leaves and stems. Fifth and sixth instar larvae feed mainly on the stringy feeding on tender shoots and young leavi stems and shortly before pupation one or more stems of the host vine are severed, causing the upper parts to wither. If the plant is young, the lower part is eaten down to the ground. Pupation. The larva may wander for 24 hours or longer to locate a suitable site for pupation, which sometimes occurs at a considerable distance from where it was feeding last. 

The longest recorded distance was nearly 10 meters. It generally pupates under a leaf of any kind of shrub or tree other than the hostplant, rarely on stems, at an average height of one to two meters above the ground in secondary forest, but considerably higher in primary forest. Pupa. 

The ground color is light brown. Wing cases are yellow, with a broad light-brown streak along the lower margin. Abdomi its brown ventrally and yellow dorsally, with a yellow latero-ventral. streak. I saddle mark bright yellow, extending over segments one to five. Middorsally divided by a narrow dark brown line; a similar line running laterally below wing cases, ‘Thorax dark brown, tegulae bright yellow. Abdominal segments five to eight with two very short, sharp, black processes each. Pupa very closely resembles that of O. victoria. Duration of the pupal stage from forty to forty-five days. General observations. Female butterflies appear to follow a determined flight pattern when ovipositing. 

This is suggested by the fact that larvae in different stages of development, together with one or more pupae or exuviae, may always be located on or near the same foodplant, while other plants growing in the vicinity remain free of specimens the year round. It is possible that females, in their search for suitable conditions for oviposition, are stimulated by plants that already do support or have previously supported early stages. Single larvae are only found on small plants. Although it has not been possible to determine the longevity of the adults it is believed to be similar to that of O. priamus. Some males of Alexandria were clearly marked after they emerged from the pupa and then released in a garden. A few of these specimens established themselves for the duration of their adult life in the same garden, where both hostplants and flowers were prolific. After 11 weeks, one male was found caught in a large spiderweb. 

Another died in the same way after nearly 12 weeks. Predators and diseases. Several larvae have been found marked with numerous rust-brown dots, sitting motionless without feeding. They died after several weeks and may have been killed by a fungus disease. On one occasion a larva covered with eggs of a Tachinid was collected, but continued feeding pupated normally, and produced the adult. Apparently, the parasite eggs did not hatch or the resulting maggots did not survive. 

A native collector once had a pupa that produced a large number of small, black wasps, probably Chalcididae. Otherwise, larvae of O. alexandrae are rarely attacked by parasites. Prepupae and soft, fresh pupae are sometimes killed by ants and wasps and mature larvae and pupae are attacked by tree rats and small marsupials, When not mating both sexes may be seen, generally flying high (average 20 to 30 meters above the ground) and in a single direction. In the forest, males are seldom seen as they remain in the shade of the high canopy and avoid open or exposed areas. Fecundity. Two females were taken on the wing while ovipositing. Both specimens appeared in good condition, but it was impossible to make an accurate estimate of their age. They were kept alive and fed daily se and honey solution. 

After 12 days in captivity, both specimens were killed. One female had laid one egg; dissection of its abdomen produced another 16 mature eggs. On the basis that not more than 10 eggs had been laid before its capture, we can estimate a total capacity of 25 to 27 eggs. Dissection of the second female produced a total of 12 eggs of which two were immature. as


Wednesday, 11 May 2022

MYXOMYCETES (The Slime Moulds)

The myxomycetes are a strange and interesting group, apparently half plant and half animal. We see them as small dry fruiting bodies of various forms, from small puff-ball-like objects, on wood, to brightly colored little stalked balls or cylinders on stalks, less than 10mm tall. 

They are so strange and they are now classified in a totally different Kingdom, the Protozoa, neither fungi nor animals. They continue to be treated as ‘honorary fungi’ for the purposes of recording. They develop from spores into primitive animal forms, amoeba-like and swimming about in the water in their substrates, eating bacteria. They then change their form by coming together in huge numbers to form a sort of slime, which still feeds by engulfing food as it moves around, flowing slowly like a large Amoeba. 

The organism finally decides that it should reproduce, and the slime emerges from within the deadwood, or whatever substrate it was growing in, and climbs up to a dry spot where the final transformation takes place. It slowly changes into the fruiting body we see, containing thousands on more of dry spores borne on minute threads which expand and contract, contorting, and releasing the spores to the air.

Friday, 29 April 2022

The mysterious demise of William Morgan

In the history of American Freemasonry, there is perhaps no more intriguing a tale than the mysterious demise of William Morgan. The mix of circumstances, evidence, hearsay, public speculation, and alleged abduction and murder weave a fantastic tale perfect for a made-for-television movie. The fact that the case was so much in the public eye is arguably the most crucial element of the mystery since the eventual outrage and exposure of the Brotherhood and its secrecy led to widespread anti-Mason sentiments and the formation of the Anti-Masonic Party. 

A native of Culpepper County in Virginia, William Morgan left his home to spend time working various jobs in Canada and areas of New York. In 1824, Morgan settled in the small town of Batavia, New York, and began work as an itinerant stonemason. Referring to himself as “Captain” Morgan, he cited his distinctive military service in the War of 1812. Whether Morgan actually did serve in the armed forces is still questioned by historians, and many accounts of the Morgan mystery vary widely. 

Some historical accounts show that in 1825 in the Western Star Chapter No. 33 in LeRoy, New York, Morgan was awarded a Royal Arch degree. Experts disagree as to whether he was ever really a Mason (most assert he wasn’t) or had simply lied his way into the fraternity for his own evil gain. Other accounts tell that Morgan showed up at the lodge claiming he was already a brother, which incited suspicion among that lodge’s brethren. No matter whether he was a true Mason or not, several accounts state that Morgan spent time visiting other lodges and eventually was part of a group that was petitioning for a Royal Arch Chapter (a division of the York Rite). 

However, when the chapter started, Morgan was denied membership. Unbeknownst to everyone, this marked the beginning of a powerful public scandal that would shock brethren around the world. Morgan Spills Freemason Secrets Morgan’s omission from the new Batavian charter group resulted in arguments, and Morgan left the fraternity. 

At that point, he made his intentions clear: he was writing a book that would reveal all the secrets of Freemasonry—including their rituals and procedures—and he had, in fact, been paid a great sum in advance for the book by David Miller, publisher of a local newspaper, the Batavia Advocate. Morgan’s contract for the book involved Miller, a Mason who for twenty years did not progress beyond Entered Apprentice and bore a grudge against the Brotherhood; Morgan’s landlord, John Davids; and a man called Russell Dyer. 

Morgan exacerbated the issue by continually boasting about the enormous sum he had been paid for the book, which only gave rise to anger among the brethren. In order to avert the potential crisis, local Masons ran advertisements in other publications, which informed the public to be watchful of Morgan and his undesirable attributes. As one historian tells the tale, shortly thereafter, a local innkeeper was asked by a Mason to provide a meal for fifty of his brethren, who revealed that their intention that evening was to attack the Batavia Advocate’s offices. After hearing of their plan, Miller put out the word that he and others were armed and prepared for any attack. 

The Freemasons never executed their plan, but the incident did set off a chain of events. It is said that several Masons approached Morgan at his residence and arrested him for debts he owed them. He was taken to a local jail in the charge of a jailer who also happened to be a Mason. Miller, upon hearing of Morgan’s incarceration, set about finding the jailer so as to pay off Morgan’s alleged debt; however, it was a Friday evening and the jailer had conveniently departed, leaving Morgan behind bars until Monday. 

With the jailer absent, the Freemasons returned to confront Morgan about his scandalous exposé, telling him that if he gave them the book he would go free. After he refused to do so, they went to his home and engaged in a futile attempt to recover Morgan’s work. From there, matters only got worse. By Monday morning, Miller paid Morgan’s “debt,” and he was released. The Freemasons then turned around and had him immediately arrested for stealing a shirt and tie and owing another small debt in the town of Canandaigua, about fifty miles east of Batavia. He was driven there in a carriage and again incarcerated. At the same time, an unsuccessful attempt was made to jail Miller.

Saturday, 23 April 2022

Modification Mesohippus

About 40 million years ago, the evolutionary process began to change the horse even more. At this time, during the Oligocene Epoch, appeared Mesohippus. As the temperature and climate changed, forests began to dwindle and grass became more prevalent. Mesohippus developed larger than its ancestors, standing 24 inches high at the shoulders, about the size of a collie dog. The 44 teeth remained, however, and legs and face began to lengthen. 

Its feet were still clinging to pads but tiny hooves had developed on three toes on the front and three toes on the back feet. It was better suited to running fast to escape the enemies that pursued. Because the swamp had given way to soft ground, Mesohippus no longer needed its toes so much as Eohippus did. 

The lateral supporting toes gradually decreased in size while the middle toe gained strength. Some of these horses migrated across the Bering Strait to preserve the species, which were eventually wiped out on the North American continent for unknown reasons.

Wednesday, 13 April 2022

Buff-Tailed Bee (Bombus terrestris)

This bumblebee has two dark yellow bands, one on the thorax near the head and the second on the abdomen. Workers have a white tip to the tail, and the queen has a buff-white (or occasionally orange) tail tip. Behavior & life cycle The queens emerge from February onwards. The nest becomes large, with up to five hundred bees, and is typically sited underground in an old rodent hole, with an entrance tunnel up to 6 feet (2 m) long. 

The workers fly for much of the year, with males emerging to mate with the young queens from July to October. Usually, only the newly mated queen overwinters, but some colonies have remained active throughout recent warmer winters in southern England (and similar latitudes), with worker bees seen flying during January. 

It was the first bumblebee species to be reared commercially, and it is now used worldwide to pollinate greenhouse crops such as tomato, eggplant (aubergine), zucchini (courgette), watermelon, bell pepper, and strawberry. Outdoors, it is an important pollinator of fruit and crops such as alfalfa, onion, rape, and sunflower. 

Commercial use has led to this bee escaping and colonizing Tasmania and South America. It was deliberately introduced to New Zealand in the late 1800s. B. terrestris is parasitized by the cuckoo bee Bombus vestalis.

Thursday, 6 January 2022

George Washington and the Whiskey Rebellion

In 1788 George Washington was elected as the first President of the United States. New York was then the country's capital city. On April 30, 1789, Washington stood on a balcony there and swore a solemn oath “to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States." When the ceremony came to an end he officially took control of the nation's government. Washington believed that political parties were harmful. He said later that it was "the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage" them. Even so, he favored a strong federal government, so he tended to govern in a federalist manner. The way that he dealt with the "Whiskey Rebellion" of 1794 was an example of this. 

The main crop grown by farmers in western Pennsylvania was corn. Some of this they made into whiskey which they then sold. When the federal government placed a tax on the whiskey the Pennsylvania farmers refused to pay it. They burned down the houses of the federal tax collectors or "revenue agents." who tried to make them pay. Washington sent an army of men to support the rights of the federal government. Faced by soldiers, the rebels went home quietly. The Whiskey Rebellion collapsed without any fighting. The soldiers arrested a few of the leaders, but later the President pardoned them. After this, there was no more organized resistance to paying the whiskey tax. 

But many frontier farmers went on making whiskey that was never taxed. They made it in stills hidden away in the woods in places that revenue agents could not find. Such illegal" moonshine" whiskey-so called because it was often made at night-continues to be made to this day. The law-making, or "legislative," powers of the federal government were given to a Congress. This was made up of representatives elected by the people. Congress was to consist of two parts, the Senate and the House of Representatives. In the Senate, each state would be equally represented, with two members, whatever the size of its population. 

The number of representatives a state had in the louse of Representatives, however, would depend upon its population. Finally, the Constitution set up a Supreme Court to control the "judicial" part of the nation's government. The job of the Supreme Court was to make decisions in any disagreements about the meaning of the laws and the Constitution. The Constitution made sure that there was a "balance of power" between these three main parts, or ' " branches," of the federal government. To each bunch it gan' powers that the or her two did not have; each had ways of stropping wrongful actions by either of the other two. This was to make sure that no one person or group could become powerful enough to take complete control of the nation's government. 

The American people had rebelled against being ruled in an undemocratic fashion by Britain. They did not want to replace the unrepresentative rule of the king and parliament in Lon don with the rule of a tyranny cal central government in the United States itself Many Americans had another fear. This was that the federal government might try to weaken the tilt' of the states to run their own individual affairs. To remove this danger the Constitution said exactly what powers the federal government should have and what powers should be reserved for the states. It said that the states would be allowed to run their internal affairs as they wished. provided that they kept to the rules of the Constitution. Before the new system of government set out in the Constitution could begin. It had to be approved by a majority of the citizens In at least nine of the thirteen states.

Sunday, 24 October 2021

Phylogenetic reconstruction of relationships of the Australo-Papuan parrots

 Phylogenetic reconstruction of relationships of the Australo-Papuan parrots using the Bayesian criteria and the 27 taxa and eight loci used in the Secondary dataset. Posterior probabilities are indicated above branches; values of 1.0 or 100% are indicated with asterisks and values below 0.7 or 70% are not shown. Images of birds painted by Frank Knight reproduced with permission (see Acknowledgments). The species depicted, from top to bottom are shown approximately to scale, and are: Pezoporus flaviventris, Neophema elegans, Psephotus dissimilis, Melopsittacus undulatus, Loriculus galgulus, Psittacella brehmi, Eclectus roratus (male, left and female, right), Micropsitta finschii.

Thursday, 30 September 2021

DRAB PROMINENT “Misogada unicolor”

 RECOGNITION Instantly identified by its “forked tail” and close association with sycamore. Pale green with broad white dorsal stripe infused with brick-red spots. Head with pair of medial white lines that diverge to follow edges of the triangle and conspicuous, broad reddish band, edged below with white that extends to the antenna. Larva to 4cm.

OCCURRENCE Edges of watercourses, wetlands, and parks from Missouri to Massachusetts south to northern Florida and Texas. At least two generations with mature caterpillars from May to November.

COMMON FOODPLANTS Sycamore; reports from cottonwood and other foodplants may be in error.

REMARKS This interesting caterpillar is anything but drab its moniker is derived from the plebian appearance of the adult. The larva rests with its head partially pulled within the thorax (inset). Look for the Drab Prominent on leaf undersides, positioned over the midrib or a strong secondary vein. I have had consistent success searching saplings and young sycamore plants in late summer. In early instars, the anal prolegs account for more than half of the body length. Alarmed larvae shunt blood (hemolymph) into their anal prolegs, enlarging them further, and flail them about the body. In each successive instar, the anal prolegs become proportionately smaller and lose erectile capacity. The pupa overwinters.